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Main arrow Archive of previous Issues arrow ╣2 2014 (36) arrow Health loss in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine during post-soviet period: comparative analysis
Health loss in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine during post-soviet period: comparative analysis Print
Tuesday, 27 May 2014

V.G. Semenova, T.P. Sabgayda, N.S. Gavrilova, G.N. Evdokushkina
Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow

Abstract. The aim of the study was to identify general and specific regularities of health loss trends in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine in the context of social and economic changes during the post-Soviet period.

The study is based on mortality data for Belarus and Ukraine presented in the European mortality database. The Russian data are based on the Rosstat data calculated using program FAISS-Potential.

The comparative analysis of changes in medical and demographic situation in these three slavic countries in 1990-2011 showed the following. First, general trends in life expectancy dynamics were the same during this period and were characterized by a sharp decline in life expectancy during the first phase of the reforms, followed by short-time differently directed trends in 1995-2005 and overcoming of the crisis after 2005.

Second, specifics of those three countries manifested in rates of life expectancy changes, however, at the initial phase of economic reforms the Belarus model turned out to be least stressful resulting in minimal loss and early crisis recovery. The Russian model that was the utmost liberal one, turned out to be most severe

However, in the second half of the 2000s the Belarus economic model was gradually loosing its efficiency resulting in the lowest rates of life expectancy growth.

During the latest years under study (2008-2011) the highest rates of life expectancy, however, of uneven growth (2008-2009), were registered in Ukraine. The year of sharp increase of this indicator coincided with the sharp and one-time growth of income of the Ukrainian population.

Third, in 1990-2005, regularities of life expectancy changes in Ukraine were similar to those in Russia. On the contrary, in Belarus they stagnated in 1995-2005.

Fourth, in all three countries those life expectancy changes were mainly determined by changes in working population mortality.

In their turn, trends in changes in working population mortality were not accidental; they were determined by relevant changes in mortality from all leading death causes throughout all periods under study.

The only exception in all three countries was neoplasms, mortality caused by neoplasms has been gradually decreasing since mid 1990s.

Fifth, all three countries have seen a growing cumulative effect of exogenous pathologies since 1990s (respiratory, digestive diseases, infectious diseases and ill-defined conditions). Only Ukraine demonstrated their reduction during the latest years under study.

A growing input of digestive diseases in the mortality structure in all three countries was reported against the background of reduced share of respiratory diseases. As a result, digestive diseases ranked fourth descending respiratory diseases to the 5th place in Russia and Belarus and even down to the 6th place in Ukraine.

It seems to be the consequence of the leading risk factor ľ alcohol abuse, which is common for all three countries.

Keywords: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, life expectancy, mortality, leading death causes, comparative analysis of mortality.

 

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