骟痦嚯 如溧蝈朦耜 桕 绣潢铍脲汨 绣溧牿桀眄 耦忮 绣溧牿 碾 噔蝾痤 暑眚嚓螓
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蓐耧铕 眍忸耱彘

企痦嚯 徉玎 溧眄

eLIBRARY.RU - 屠幼屠 菟攀倚瓮屠 寥了任遗世



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秒噔磬 arrow 鲤蹊 眍戾痤 arrow 6 2023 (69) arrow 闲我我认刃温劳扰 闲闻室温 韧岩杏膛鸵 闲蚊臀侨形吕腿 蜗胰汤塑臀梦 欣锹纫冗 我欣阉 悄欣挛握欣团腿
闲我我认刃温劳扰 闲闻室温 韧岩杏膛鸵 闲蚊臀侨形吕腿 蜗胰汤塑臀梦 欣锹纫冗 我欣阉 悄欣挛握欣团腿 襄鬣螯
24.12.2023 .

DOI: 10.21045/2071-5021-2023-69-6-1

1,2 栗铛钼 .., 2 阴噌桉桁钼 .., 2 绵殇帏 .., 2 枢痄囗钼 .., 2填赅邂 ..
1吾耱忸 钽疣龛麇眄铋 铗忮蝰蜮屙眍耱 澡痨 萏, . 袜朦麒, 蓄耨栝耜 藻溴疣鲨
2悦廖 挛 噌囵滂眍-拎腙囵耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 箜桠屦耔蝈 桁屙 .. 铃疳尻钼嗷 惕眍狃磬箨 蓄耨梃, . 袜朦麒, 蓄耨栝耜 藻溴疣鲨

绣琬戾

狸蝮嚯铖螯. 橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 镳铄牝眍 溴蝈朦眍耱  桧耱痼戾眚 纛痨桊钼囗 镳邃忄痂蝈朦眍 (疣眄彘) 镟疣滂沆 镳铄牝, 鲥朦 镳钼邃屙 囡痤徼痤忄龛 铞屙觇 翦牝桠眍耱 邈 桉镱朦珙忄龛, 囗嚯桤 蝈蹴梓羼觇 踵疣牝屦桉蜩, 镥疱 磬鬣腩 疱嚯桤圉梃.

棱蝾疣扈 怙屦恹 镳邃镳桧蜞 镱稃蜿 钺铖眍忄螯 礤钺躅滂祛耱 耦玟囗 镳铗铗栾 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨, 疱嚯桤簋 镳铄牝, 恹犷痤 箴钼 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗, 铕桢眚桊钼囗眍泐 磬 翦牝桠眍 桉镱朦珙忄龛 疱耋瘃钼 耔耱屐 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 狍潴, 镱蝠遽眍耱彘 镟鲨屙蜞, 徨疱骓铄 铗眍龛 怵屐屙眍祗 疱耋瘃 赅 铖眍忭铋 鲥眄铖蜩 玎 聍弪 恹犷疣 铒蜩爨朦眍 腩汨耱桕 疱嚯桤箦禧 镳铞羼耦.

吾牝铎 桉耠邃钼囗 怆 镳铞羼覃 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 疣珥铋 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 玎忤 铗 耋狷尻蝾 - 篦囫蝽桕钼 疱嚯桤圉梃 翦溴疣朦睇 镳铄牝钼, 桉镱腠栩咫彘 磬 箴钼礤 疱汨铐, 镟鲨屙蝾.

皱朦 桉耠邃钼囗: 耦玟囗桢 噌耦膻蝽钽 扈龛祗爨 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨 (镳铗铗栾), 疱嚯桤簋 镳铄牝, 赅麇耱忮 桧耱痼戾眚 潆 镳钼屦觇 趔黻鲨铐嚯铖蜩 囡钼 漕 磬鬣豚 桴 羿牝梓羼觐泐 镳邃铖蜞怆屙 (疣琊噌铗觇) 镱耠邃簋 铞屙觇. 碾 漕耱桄屙 溧眄铋 鲥腓 镳邃镳桧蜞 镱稃蜿 漕赅玎螯 礤钺躅滂祛耱 镳桁屙屙 镳铞羼耦 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 磬 疣珥 箴钼 忸镫铢屙 耱疣蝈汨麇耜桴 鲥脲, 镱耱噔脲眄 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝囔 蝾麝 琊屙 耠邃簋 踵疣牝屦桉蜩: 耜铕铖蜩, 耱铊祛耱, 钺疣蝽铋 疋玷 疱嚯桉蜩黜铖蜩.

锑蝈痂嚯 戾蝾潲. 锑蝈痂嚯囔 桉耠邃钼囗 忤腓顸 疣犷螓 痤耨栝耜桴 玎痼徨骓 篦屙, 疋玎眄 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 疣珥 铗疣耠 溴蝈朦眍耱. 耵屦 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 溧眄 戾蝾滂赅 镳邃腩驽磬 怙屦恹. 碾 钺铖眍忄龛 礤钺躅滂祛耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 镳铞羼耦 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 桉镱朦珙忄腓顸 戾蝾 耔耱屐眍泐 耱痼牝箴眍-趔黻鲨铐嚯钽 囗嚯桤.

绣珞朦蜞螓. 栩钽 噔蝾痤 耵铕祗腓痤忄睇 镳嚓蜩麇耜桢 疱觐戾礓圉梃, 觐蝾瘥 镱祛泱 耥桤栩 痂耜 铒蜩扈玷痤忄螯 玎蝠囹 磬 疱嚯桤圉棹 镳铄牝钼, 镱祛 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 忸珈铈眍耱彘 镳铗铗栾, 玎忤 铗 箴钼 邈 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镱塍麒螯 钺疣蝽簋 疋琰 铗 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 耱彘牾铍溴痤 镳铄牝.

青觌屙桢. 橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 怆弪 眍恹 箫疣怆屙麇耜桁 桧耱痼戾眚铎 铗疣耠 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 祛驽 耱囹 翦牝桠睇 疱珏疴铎 潆 漕耱桄屙 镱耱噔脲眄 鲥脲 翦溴疣朦眍泐 镳铄牝 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 漯噔铑躔囗屙桢. 蔓耦觇 箴钼屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 爨犟桁嚯 镳栳腓娓 觐礤黜铎 疱珞朦蜞蝮 镳铄牝, 镱铎 镳 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 龛 镱蝠遽栩咫 篑塍 镱塍鬣 镳嚓蜩麇耜栝 铒, 爨犟桁嚯 镳栳腓驽眄 疱嚯桉蜩黜铎.

孰邂 耠钼: 箴钼龛 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾; 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 耱彘牾铍溴瘥 镳铄牝; 镳铗铗栾 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨; 镳铞羼覃 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗, 镳铄牝

暑眚嚓蝽 桧纛痨圉: 栗铛钼 犁桉 码噤桁桊钼磬, 錷ail: 蒡铗 e-mail 玎 铗 耧囔-犷蝾. 碾 邈 镳铖祛蝠 忄 狃囿珏疱 漕腈磬 猁螯 怅膻麇磬 镱滗屦骊 Java-script .
澡磬眈桊钼囗桢. 锐耠邃钼囗桢 礤 桁咫 耧铐耦瘃觐 镱滗屦骊.
暑眙腓牝 桧蝈疱耦. 棱蝾瘥 溴觌囵桊簋 铗耋蝰蜮桢 忭 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 觐眙腓牝钼 桧蝈疱耦 疋玷 矬犭桕圉桢 溧眄铋 耱囹.
杨犭屙桢 梓羼觇 耱囗溧痱钼. 泥眄 忤 桉耠邃钼囗 礤 蝠遽箦 镳铛铈溴龛 耧屦蜩琨 腩赅朦睇 梓羼觇 觐扈蝈蝾.
碾 鲨蜩痤忄龛: 栗铛钼 .., 阴噌桉桁钼 .., 绵殇帏 .., 枢痄囗钼 .., 填赅邂 .. 橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 镳铄牝钼 - 桧耱痼戾眚 镳钽眍玷痤忄龛 铒蜩爨朦眍泐 疣玮栩 铗疣耠 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛. 杨鲨嚯 囫镥牝 玟铕钼 磬皴脲龛 [皴蝈忸 桤溧龛錧 2023; 69(6):1. 绣骅 漕耱箫: http://vestnik.mednet.ru/content/view/1542/27/lang,ru/. DOI: 10.21045/2071-5021-2023-69-6-1

PROJECT PROTOTYPING AS A TOOL FOR PREDICTION AND OPTIMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY
1,2 Akhokhova A.V., 2 Tkhabisimova I.K., 2 Gaydash O.B., 2 Kardanov T.S., 2Mokaev A.M.
1Limited Liability Company 揝EM, Nalchik, Russia
2Kabardino-Balkarian State University named after Kh.M. Berbekov of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Nalchik, Russia

Abstract

Significance. Prototyping is a tool to develop a draft (early) project paradigm, with the aim of testing and evaluating effectiveness of its use and analyzing technical characteristics prior to implementation.

For the first time ever, the authors have attempted to substantiate the need for a prototype in a medical organization implementing projects, with a choice of the prototyping detail level, focused on efficient use of the healthcare system resources in future, patient needs, lean approach to the time budget as the main value by choosing the optimal logistics of the processes under implementation.

The object of the study is prototyping processes of different degree of detail, depending on the subjects - participants in the implementation of the federal projects, implementers at the regional level, and patients.

The purpose of the study is to create an absolute minimum in a medical organization (prototype) that implements projects, as a tool to test functionality of the stages prior to their actual implementation (development) and subsequent evaluation. To achieve this goal, an attempt has been made to substantiate application of prototyping processes at different levels of implementation of the strategic goals set by national projects in terms of the following characteristics: speed, cost, feedback and realism.

Material and methods. The research material included publications by Russian and foreign scientists related to prototyping in various fields of activity. For the first time ever, this technique was proposed to be used in healthcare. To substantiate the need to use prototyping processes in implementing national projects, the method of systemic and structural-functional analysis was used.

Results. As a result, the authors have formulated practical recommendations that will help reduce risks and optimize costs associated with project implementation, using potential capabilities of the prototype, depending on the level of its detail as well as receive feedback from potential project stakeholders.

Conclusion. Prototyping is a new management tool in healthcare and can become an effective reserve for achieving the goals of the national project 揌ealthcare. A highly detailed prototype is much similar to the project final result; therefore, service consumes interacting with the prototype, will receive as realistic practical experience as possible.

Keywords: prototype detail levels; potential project stakeholders; medical organization prototype; prototyping processes; projects

Corresponding author: Azis V. Akhokhova, email: 蒡铗 e-mail 玎 铗 耧囔-犷蝾. 碾 邈 镳铖祛蝠 忄 狃囿珏疱 漕腈磬 猁螯 怅膻麇磬 镱滗屦骊 Java-script
Information about authors:
Akhohova .V
. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2370-9701
Tkhabisimova I.K. http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4065-989X
Gaydash O.B., https://orcid.org/0009-0007-4627-9587
Kardanov T.S., https://orcid.org/0009-0007-4633-4398
Mokaev A.M., https://orcid.org/0009-0001-6090-9350
Acknowledgments. The study had no sponsorship.
Competing interests. The authors declare the absence of any conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
Compliance with ethical standards. This study does not require a conclusion from the Local Ethics Committee.
For citation: Akhokhova A.V., Tkhabisimova I.K., Gaydash O.B., Kardanov T.S., Mokaev A.M. Project prototyping as a tool for prediction and optimal development of the healthcare industry. Social'nye aspekty zdorov'a naselenia [serial online] 2023; 69(6):1. Available from: http://vestnik.mednet.ru/content/view/1542/27/lang,ru/. DOI: 10.21045/2071-5021-2023-69-6-1 (In Rus).

骡邃屙桢

橡铗铗栾́痤忄龛 猁耱疣 屦眍忄 疱嚯桤圉 徉珙忸 趔黻鲨铐嚯铖蜩 狍潴泐 镳钿箨蜞/桤溴腓, 潆 囗嚯桤 疣犷螓 耔耱屐 鲥腩. 袜 囡 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 爨臌扈 篑桦扈 耦玟喔蝰 疣犷蜞 耔耱屐. 骂 怵屐 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 忤漤 犷脲 溴蜞朦磬 赅痱桧 篑蝠铋耱忄 耔耱屐 [1].

橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 桉镱朦珞弪 爨眍-镳栳铕铖蝠铄龛, 镳栳铕铖蝠铄龛, 镳钽疣祆桊钼囗梃 忸 祉钽桴 漯筱桴 钺豚耱 蝈蹴桕 [2]; 赅 镳噔桦, 镳铗铗栾 耱囗钼栩 镳桦铈屙桢 隊蝈蹴梓羼觐祗 玎溧龛. 橡 铎 镳铗铗栾 礤 钺玎蝈朦眍 恹镱腠弪 疣礻圊 蝈 驽蝈蹴铍钽栝, 黩 疣琊噌囹噱爨 耔耱屐 [3,4].

橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 蜞赕 磬 疋铄 镳桁屙屙桢 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 铖眍忭 钺疣珙忄蝈朦睇 祛潴脲, 觐蝾瘥 忄骓 蝾麝 琊屙 纛痨桊钼囗 珥囗栝 箪屙栝, 礤钺躅滂禧 潆 耦玟囗 眍恹 蝈蹴铍钽栝, 蜞赕 眍恹 镳钿箨蝾 蝈蹴铖翦瘥. 亦, 祛潴朦 3D-祛溴腓痤忄龛,狅痤蝾蜩镨痤忄龛, 蝈蹴铍钽梃 鲨麴钼钽 镳铊玮钿耱忄 钺豚耱 钺疣犷蜿 爨蝈痂嚯钼, 噤滂蜩忭 蝈蹴铍钽梃 磬镳噔脲 磬 纛痨桊钼囗桢 桧耱痼戾眚囵 耦玟囗 桉耠邃钼囗 祛溴脲 [4].

橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢, 镱 祉屙棹 礤觐蝾瘥 疣琊噌铗麒觐, 怆弪 襦禧 忄骓 囡铎疣琊噌铗觇 [1,5]. 项耠 囡 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 钺玎蝈朦眍 耠邃簋 囡 镥疱耢铗疣 囵蹊蝈牝箴 耔耱屐, 疣琊噌铗觇, 疱嚯桤圉梃 蝈耱桊钼囗 觐礤黜钽 镳钿箨蜞 [5,6].

朽琊噌铗觇 镳铗铗栾钼 铖簌羼蜮 疣珥 铗疣耠 耵屦圊 溴蝈朦眍耱 麇腩忮赅, 镳铊玮钿耱忮眄铋 耩邃. 耵屦 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 铖眍忭 磬镳噔脲龛扈 桉镱朦珙忄龛 忭邃疱龛 镳铗铗栾钼 耱嚯 耦怵屐屙睇 戾滂鲨眈觇 桧纛痨圉桀眄 耔耱屐 蝈蹴铍钽梃 [7]. 武龛 桤 龛 怆弪 戾蝾 猁耱痤泐 耦玟囗 镳铗铗栾钼 沭圄梓羼觇 镳邃耱噔脲龛 溧眄 潆 祛龛蝾痂磴 疱珞朦蜞蝾 溴蝈朦眍耱 钺牝 箫疣怆屙 镳铞羼皴 趔黻鲨铐桊钼囗 戾滂鲨眈觇 铕汔龛玎鲨 [8].

配桧梓睇 桉耠邃钼囗 镱疋睇 忭邃疱龛 疣琊噌铗赍 镳铗铗栾 潆 web襦轵 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨 鲥 桧纛痨圉桀眄钽 钺耠箧桠囗 镟鲨屙蝾 泐痤漶觐 镱腓觌桧桕, 觐蝾瘥 铒疱溴脲睇 蝠遽钼囗 趔黻鲨铐嚯 镳钽疣祆眍泐 疱龛, 疣琊噌铗囗眍 耱痼牝箴 滂玎轫 [9,7].

镳嚓蜩麇耜铋 戾滂鲨礤 溧眄 戾蝾 磬 疋铄 镳桁屙屙桢 镫囫蜩麇耜铋 蹊痼疸梃 镳 桉镱朦珙忄龛 觐祜蝈痦钽 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 镱怵彐溴眄 桦 篁疣麇眄 鬣耱彘 蝈豚 磬 囡 镫囗桊钼囗 铒屦圉栝. 杨怵屐屙睇 蝈礓屙鲨 镫囫蜩麇耜铋 蹊痼疸梃 珥圜栩咫 疣聒桊桦 忸珈铈眍耱 耧弼栲腓玷痤忄眄钽 脲麇龛, 怦脲漶蜮桢 忭邃疱龛 觌桧梓羼牦 镳嚓蜩牦 蝈蹴铍钽栝 耦玟囗 镳铗铗栾, 黩 镱玮铍弪 漕徼忄螯 塍鼬桴 囗囹铎梓羼觇 趔黻鲨铐嚯 疱珞朦蜞蝾 [10,11].

湾觐蝾瘥扈 噔蝾疣扈 铒桉囗 蝈铕弪梓羼觇 铖眍恹 镳嚓蜩麇耜铄 镳桁屙屙桢 蝈蹴铍钽梃 滂玎轫-禧屙 溴蝈朦眍耱 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨, 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 赅麇耱忮 桧耱痼戾眚 戾蝾溧 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 潆 箫疣怆屙 忡噼祛溴轳蜮桢 镟鲨屙蜞扈 鲥 箅篦龛 铌噻囗 戾滂鲨眈觐 镱祛 镳 皴痄鬻眍-耦耋滂耱 玎犷脲忄龛 [12,13].

蚂羼蝈 蝈, 疣犷, 镱疋眄 桉镱朦珙忄龛 戾蝾溧 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗, 赅麇耱忮 桧耱痼戾眚 礤钺躅滂祛泐 潆 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼 戾滂鲨眈觇扈 铕汔龛玎鲨扈 礤 磬殇屙. 棱蝾痤 怙屦恹 镳邃镳桧蜞 镱稃蜿 钺铖眍忄螯 礤钺躅滂祛耱 耦玟囗 噌耦膻蝽钽 扈龛祗爨 (镳铗铗栾) 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨, 疱嚯桤簋 镳铄牝, 镱耠邃簋 恹犷痤 箴钼 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗, 铕桢眚桊钼囗眍泐 磬 翦牝桠眍 桉镱朦珙忄龛 疱耋瘃钼 耔耱屐 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 狍潴, 镱蝠遽眍耱 镟鲨屙蜞, 徨疱骓铄 铗眍龛 怵屐屙眍祗 疱耋瘃 赅 铖眍忭铋 鲥眄铖蜩 玎 聍弪 恹犷疣 铒蜩爨朦眍 腩汨耱桕 疱嚯桤箦禧 镳铞羼耦.

皱朦 桉耠邃钼囗 耦玟囗 噌耦膻蝽钽 扈龛祗爨 (镳铗铗栾) 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨, 疱嚯桤簋 镳铄牝, 赅麇耱忮 桧耱痼戾眚 潆 镳钼屦觇 趔黻鲨铐嚯铖蜩 囡钼 漕 磬鬣豚 桴 羿牝梓羼觐泐 镳邃铖蜞怆屙 (疣琊噌铗觇) 镱耠邃簋 铞屙觇.

锑蝈痂嚯 戾蝾潲

吾牝铎 桉耠邃钼囗 怆 镳铞羼覃 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 疣珥铋 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 玎忤 铗 耋狷尻蝾 - 篦囫蝽桕钼 疱嚯桤圉梃 翦溴疣朦睇 镳铄牝钼, 桉镱腠栩咫彘 磬 箴钼礤 疱汨铐. 棱蝾疣扈 镳邃镳桧蜞 镱稃蜿 钺铖眍忄螯 礤钺躅滂祛耱 镳桁屙屙 镳铞羼耦 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 磬 疣珥 箴钼 忸镫铢屙 耱疣蝈汨麇耜桴 鲥脲, 镱耱噔脲眄 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝囔 蝾麝 琊屙 耠邃簋 踵疣牝屦桉蜩: 耜铕铖蜩, 耱铊祛耱, 钺疣蝽铋 疋玷 疱嚯桉蜩黜铖蜩.

锑蝈痂嚯囔 桉耠邃钼囗 忤腓顸 疣犷螓 痤耨栝耜桴 玎痼徨骓 篦屙, 疋玎眄 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 疣珥 铗疣耠 溴蝈朦眍耱. 耵屦 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 溧眄 戾蝾滂赅 镳邃腩驽磬 怙屦恹. 项桉 矬犭桕圉栝 潆 囗嚯桤, 镱疋眄 桤篦噱祛 镳钺脲戾, 镳钼钿桦 徉玎 溧眄 (Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register 漯筱桴). 悟犷 磬篦眍-桉耠邃钼囹咫觇 疣犷 耱囹彘 铖簌羼蜮腭 桤 尻蝠铐睇 徉 溧眄 袜篦磬 尻蝠铐磬 徼犭桀蝈赅 eLIBRARY.RU 桧纛痨圉桀眄-觐祆箜桕圉桀眄铋 皴蜩 眚屦礤蚧 玎 镥痂钿 怵屐屙 2002 镱 2023 沣.

鲥 桤篦屙 桉耠邃钼囹咫觐泐 忸镳铖 镳钹磬腓玷痤忄睇 犷脲 30 桉蝾黜桕钼 腓蝈疣蝮瘥, 磬镳祗 桦 觐疋屙眍 玎蝠嚆桠帼 蝈禧 镳嚓蜩麇耜钽 镳桁屙屙 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 篦弪铎 箴钼 桴 溴蜞腓玎鲨.

绣珞朦蜞螓

橡铞羼 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 疋铄钺疣珥 镳邃忄痂蝈朦睇 耧屦桁屙 镥疱 忸镫铢屙桢 骅珥 镳铄牝 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨彘, 磬麒磬 铗 眍痨囹桠眍 镳噔钼铋 疱汶囔屙蜞鲨 镱潢 邈 疱嚯桤圉梃 漕 镱塍麇龛 疱珞朦蜞蝾, 篑蜞眍怆屙睇 牮栩屦扈 漕耱桄屙 镱赅玎蝈脲 耦铗忮蝰蜮桢 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝囔 [14].

项 耋蜩, 镳铗铗栾 - 爨赍蝽 钺疣珏, 觐蝾瘥 镱玮铍栩 玎桧蝈疱耦忄眄 腓鲟 镳铄牝 (溧脲 - 耱彘牾铍溴瘥) 铗麇螂桠 镳邃耱噔螯 觐礤黜 疱珞朦蜞螓, 镱塍麇眄 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 疱汨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 磬 怦艴 箴钼 (镟鲨屙, 戾滂鲨眈赅 铕汔龛玎鲨, 铕汔 桉镱腠栩咫铋 怆囫蜩 耋狷尻蜞), 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 钺羼镥麇龛 漕耱桄屙 鲥脲, 镱赅玎蝈脲 疱珞朦蜞蝾 翦溴疣朦睇 镳铄牝钼 [15,14].

项铎 镳邃忄痂蝈朦眍 蝈耱桊钼囗桢 镳铗铗栾 疱汨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 磬 怦艴 箴钼 邈 疱嚯桤圉梃 礤钺躅滂祛 镫铗眍 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 镱蝠遽栩咫扈 篑塍 (镟鲨屙蜞扈) 耱彘牾铍溴疣扈 镳铄牝 (翦溴疣朦睇 痼觐忸滂蝈腓 漯.), 黩钺 篑蝠囗栩 怦 忸珈铈睇 溴翦牝, 扈龛扈玷痤忄螯 痂耜 镳彐溴, 麇 铖簌羼蜮螯 翳磬眈桊钼囗桢, 镳铊玮钿栩 疣聍弪 怵屐屙睇 蝠箐钼 疱耋瘃钼 漯. 橡 铎 徨珞耠钼睇 钽疣龛麇龛屐 怆弪 赈嚯梏桕圉 桉耠邃钼囹咫 (耧弼栲腓耱), 觐蝾瘥 漕耱钼屦眍 桧蝈痫疱蜩痼弪 溴轳蜮 镱蝠遽栩咫彘 篑塍, 桧 玎桧蝈疱耦忄眄 腓 镳铄牝 [16,14].

橡铗铗栾 祛驽 怆弪 疋铄钺疣珥 桧耱痼戾眚铎 潆 镳桧蜩 疱龛 疣耧疱溴脲龛 箫疣怆屙 恹溧麇 耋狁桎栝 磬 疱嚯桤圉棹 镳铄牝(钼) 疱汨铐(圊) [17,16], 桤徉怆 铕汔睇 翦溴疣朦眍 疱汨铐嚯铋 桉镱腠栩咫铋 怆囫蜩 铗 痼蜩眄钽 疱蝠铖镥牝桠眍泐 囗嚯桤 疱珞朦蜞蝾 甯 铖忸屙. 泥眄铄 钺耱蝈朦耱忸 疱珏疴桊箦 怵屐, 溧弪 忸珈铈眍耱 铖簌羼蜮螯 囗嚯桤 镱溻钿栩 栩钽 镱 铞屙赍 翦牝桠眍耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 耋狁桎梃 磬 箴钼礤 疱汨铐 潆 恹疣犷蜿 箫疣怆屙麇耜桴 疱龛 磬 翦溴疣朦眍 箴钼礤.

橡噔栩咫蜮铎 蓄耨梃 箧 镳邃镳桧螓 镱稃蜿 疱嚯桤圉梃 镨腩蝽钽 镳铄牝, 沅 磬 镳嚓蜩赍 铖簌羼蜮弪狉羼蜩痤忄龛鍫趔黻鲨铐嚯 邃桧铋 镫铢噤觇 磬 镳邃戾 忸珈铈眍耱 镳钼邃屙 怦艴 囡钼 铗犷疣 镱塍鬣蝈脲 狺滏弪睇 耩邃耱 镱耩邃耱忸 镳铗铗栾 [18,19].

磬耱 怵屐 疋邃屙 漕耱桄屙梃 疱珞朦蜞蝾 桉镱朦珙忄龛 耋狁桎栝 嚓牦祗腓痼 囗嚯桤桊簋蝰 怵篦眢, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 镳桧蜩 疱龛, 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 疋铄怵屐屙眍 篑蝠囗屙桢 磬痼龛, 礤忸珈铈眍, 桤-玎 铗耋蝰蜮 铒屦囹桠眍耱. 悟耋蝰蜮桢 祛龛蝾痂磴 疱珞朦蜞蝾 镳铎彐篁铟睇 栩钽钼 蜞赕 礤 溧弪 镱龛爨龛 铞屙觇 箴钼 翦牝桠眍耱 疋铄怵屐屙眍耱 漕耱桄屙 蝈 桦 桧 觐眚痤朦睇 蝾麇 [18]. 泥眄铄 钺耱蝈朦耱忸 栩钽 镳屣蝰蜮箦: 铒屦囹桠眍祗 忸玟彘耱忤 磬 镳铞羼 漕耱桄屙 疱珞朦蜞蜞 觐黻疱蝽 镱塍鬣蝈脲 耋狁桎梃; 恹镱腠屙棹 玎镫囗桊钼囗睇 囡钼 耩铌; 镳邃箫疱驿屙棹 耠篦噱 钺疣珙忄龛 礤桉镱朦珙忄眄 铖蜞蜿钼 耋狁桎栝 [20,14].

袜 铖眍忄龛 桤腩驽眄钽 噔蝾痤 镳邃镳桧蜞 镱稃蜿 钺铖眍忄螯 礤钺躅滂祛耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 镳铞羼耦 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗, 蝾麝 琊屙 耱屣屙 桴 溴蜞腓玎鲨 磬 疣珥 箴钼 忸镫铢屙 (惕礴漯噔 蓄耨梃, 惕礴漯噔 耋狷尻蜞, 戾滂鲨眈赅 铕汔龛玎鲨) 潆 漕耱桄屙 鲥脲, 镱耱噔脲眄 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝囔 铞屙觇 耠邃簋 踵疣牝屦桉蜩: 耜铕铖螯, 耱铊祛耱, 钺疣蝽 疋琰 疱嚯桉蜩黜铖螯.

吾牝铎 桉耠邃钼囗 怆 镳铞羼覃 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 疣珥铋 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 磬躅羼 觐痧咫鲨铐眍 玎忤耔祛耱 铗 踵疣牝屦桉蜩 镱赅玎蝈脲 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铗铗栾钼 磬 疣珥 箴钼 耋狷尻蝾 - 篦囫蝽桕钼 疱嚯桤圉梃 翦溴疣朦睇 镳铄牝钼: 疣犷蝽桕钼 翦溴疣朦睇鯛铕汔眍 桉镱腠栩咫铋犫豚耱; 桉镱腠栩咫彘 磬 箴钼礤 疱汨铐: 戾滂鲨眈觇 铕汔龛玎鲨 耋狷尻蜞, 疱汨铐嚯 铕汔 桉镱腠栩咫铋 怆囫蜩; 镟鲨屙蝾 漯. (蜞犭桷) [16,12].

亦犭桷

青忤耔祛耱 镱赅玎蝈脲 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铗铗栾钼 铗 耱屣屙 桴 溴蜞腓玎鲨 磬 疣珥 箴钼 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼

喻囫蝽桕 疱嚯桤圉梃
犝囵嚓蝈痂耱桕 镱赅玎蝈脲 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼
狇觐痤耱 狇蝾桁铖螯 钺疣蝽 疋琰
疱嚯桉蜩黜铖螯
犔桧玟疣 蓄耨梃 - 惕礴漯噔 耋狷尻蜞
龛珀 ↑ 犿桤赅 ↓
犿桤赅 ↓ 犿桤赅 ↓
犔桧玟疣 耋狷尻蜞 - 体滂鲨眈赅 钽疣龛玎鲨 狇疱漤 耩邃 耩邃 耩邃
犔邃桷桧耜 钽疣龛玎鲨 - 相鲨屙 犫铌 ↓
犫铌 ↑ 犫铌 ↑ 犫铌 ↑
犙蝈镥睃 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 - 龛珀, 耩邃, 恹耦赅

橡 铎 踵疣牝屦桉蜩觇 镱赅玎蝈脲 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铗铗栾钼 (耜铕铖螯, 耱铊祛耱, 钺疣蝽 疋琰 疱嚯桉蜩黜铖螯) 铞屙桠嚯桉 耦镱耱噔脲龛 镳钽眍玷痼屐铋 翦牝桠眍耱 疣犷螓 篦囫蝽桕钼 (耋狷尻蝾) 镳铄牝钼, 牮栩屦梃 觐蝾瘥 玎牮屣脲睇 磬 玎觐眍溧蝈朦眍 箴钼礤 [19,17]:

1) 钺羼镥麇龛 桉镱腠屙桢 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝, 翦溴疣朦眍泐 镳铄牝, 忮漕祚蜮屙眍泐 镳铄牝 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 镟耧铕蝾 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋泐 镳铄牝 桧 漕牦戾眚囔;

2) 疋铄怵屐屙眍 镳邃耱噔脲龛 痼觐忸滂蝈膻 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 桧纛痨圉梃 疱嚯桤圉梃 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋泐 镳铄牝, 蝾 麒耠 桧纛痨圉梃 痂耜圊 疱嚯桤圉梃 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋泐 镳铄牝, 蜞赕 桧纛痨圉梃 戾疣 疱嚆桊钼囗, 磬镳噔脲眄 磬 篑蝠囗屙桢 (扈龛扈玎鲨) 痂耜钼;

3) 铗忮蝰蜮屙眍耱 玎 漕耱钼屦眍耱, 嚓蝮嚯铖螯 镱腠铗 桧纛痨圉梃 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝, 翦溴疣朦眍泐 镳铄牝 桦 忮漕祚蜮屙眍泐 镳铄牝;

4) 磬镳噔脲龛 痼觐忸滂蝈膻 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 镳邃腩驽龛 镱 钺羼镥麇龛 疋铄怵屐屙眍泐 漕耱桄屙 钺耱忮眄 珥圜桁 疱珞朦蜞蝾, 恹镱腠屙 玎溧 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝, 翦溴疣朦眍泐 镳铄牝, 漕耱桄屙 桴 镱赅玎蝈脲, 戾痤镳蜩 (疱珞朦蜞蝾) 觐眚痤朦睇 蝾麇;

5) 镳邃耱噔脲龛 镱 玎镳铖 镳铄牝睇 铘桉钼 桧纛痨圉梃 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼, 翦溴疣朦睇 镳铄牝钼 忮漕祚蜮屙睇 镳铄牝钼;

6) 篦囫蜩 箫疣怆屙梃 痂耜囔 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼, 翦溴疣朦睇 镳铄牝钼 忮漕祚蜮屙睇 镳铄牝钼;

7) 恹镱腠屙桢 桧 趔黻鲨, 镳邃篑祛蝠屙睇鍫项腩驽龛屐狀 铕汔龛玎鲨 镳铄牝眍 溴蝈朦眍耱 桧 眍痨囹桠睇扈 镳噔钼 嚓蜞扈 耵屦 镳铄牝眍 溴蝈朦眍耱 [21,19].

篦弪铎 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾钼, 礤钺躅滂祛 恹溴腓螯 耠邃簋 蜩稃 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 [22,2].

橡铗铗栾 祛泱 猁螯 耦玟囗 龛珀铋, 耩邃礤 恹耦觐 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 黩 镱漯噻箪邂噱 箴钼屙 觐黻疱蜩玎鲨 趔黻鲨铐嚯钽 磬镱腠屙 镳铗铗栾. 族 镱漯钺礤 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 蝈 犷朦 篑桦栝 疱耋瘃钼 蝠遽箦蝰 潆 邋 耦玟囗.

橡铗铗栾 龛珀铋 溴蜞腓玎鲨彘牀  狍爨骓 镳铗铗栾 (镳铄牝 眍痨囹桠睇 嚓蝾), 龛珀铋 怵屐屙眍 疱耋瘃铄礻铖螯. 项 耋蜩, 铐 镳邃耱噔 耦犷 镳铖蝮 礤镱腠簋 忮瘃棹 镳铄牝 镱 漕耱桄屙棹 鲥脲忸泐() 镱赅玎蝈(彘) (磬 箴钼礤 翦溴疣朦眍泐, 疱汨铐嚯钽 铕汔磬 桉镱腠栩咫铋 怆囫蜩, 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨) 怆 铗腓黜 耧铖钺铎 镳钼屦栩 觐眦屣鲨 恹耦觐泐 箴钼 镳彐溴, 麇 恹溴螯 漕镱腠栩咫铄 怵屐 疱耋瘃 磬 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝. 署铎 蝾泐, 铐 蜞赕 镱玮铍 镱塍鬣螯 钺疣蝽簋 疋琰 蝈耱桊钼囹 桎彖 磬 疣眄彘 耱噤梃 镳铞羼襦 镳铄牝桊钼囗.

橡铗铗栾 耩邃礤 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镱 耋蜩 爨赍螓, 怅膻鬣桢 镳铄牝桊钼囗桢 矬蝈 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 镱蝠遽栩咫彘 篑塍, 耱彘牾铍溴痤 镳铄牝 恹耱疣桠囗桢 桧纛痨圉桀眄铋 囵蹊蝈牝箴. 项耩邃耱忸 溧眄钽 蜩镟 祛骓 疋铄怵屐屙眍 疣耨蜞忤螯 嚓鲥眚 磬 忄骓 趔礓囔屙蜞朦睇 囫镥牝圊 滂玎轫 镳铄牝.

橡铗铗栾 恹耦觐 溴蜞腓玎鲨 忸珈铈睇 镱耠 礤耜铍桴 鲨觌钼 蝈耱桊钼囗 镳铗铗栾钼 龛珀铋 耩邃礤 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 磬 镳桁屦 铒, 镱塍麇眄钽 祛戾眚 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 (2005 .) [23,24]. 橡 铎 礤钺躅滂祛 忤珞嚯桤桊钼囹 滂玎轫 镳铄牝 恹耦觐 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镱 戾疱 栩屦圉桀眄 镳铞羼耦 溻桡顸 玎忮瘌帼 耱噤梃, 铖簌羼蜮螯 蝈耱桊钼囗桢 镳铗铗栾钼 恹耦觐 溴蜞腓玎鲨 漕 磬鬣豚 囡 羿牝梓羼觐泐 忭邃疱龛 镳铄牝 [25].

橡 铎 铛囵嚓蝈痂珙忄螯 镱赅玎蝈腓 镳铗铗栾钼 篦弪铎 耱屣屙 桴 溴蜞腓玎鲨 (恹耦赅, 耩邃, 龛珀) 镳桁屙栩咫 耋狷尻蜞 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼 祛骓 耠邃簋 钺疣珙:

羊铊祛耱. 族 恹 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾, 蝈 翳磬眈钼 玎蝠囹 磬 疱嚯桤圉棹 镳铄牝 狍潴 恹. 橡 铎 疣聃钿 疱耋瘃钼 礤 蝾朦觐 翳磬眈钼, 眍 怵屐屙睇 麇腩忮麇耜桴 溴蝈痨桧桊钼囗 耦 耱屣屙 溧眄铋 觐黻疱蜩玎鲨. 项铎 礤钺躅滂祛 疋铄怵屐屙眍 忭铖栩 桤戾礤龛, 彡囹囹 镳铗铗栾 磬 镳邃簌桴 囡圊 镳铄牝, 镱耠邃簋 眍痨囹桠睇 玎牮屣脲龛屐 蝠遽钼囗栝 潆 耋狷尻蝾 篦弪铎 耧弼梏桕 桴 疱嚯桤圉梃, 镳彐溴 麇 镥疱躅滂螯 磬 耱噤棹 恹耦觐 溴蜞腓玎鲨 [26,3].

蜞犭桷 镱赅玎蝈朦 蝾桁铖螯 耦铗忮蝰蜮箦 恹耦觐 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 磬 箴钼礤 耋狷尻蝾 邃桷桧耜 铕汔龛玎鲨 相鲨屙蚧, 龛珀铋 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 磬 箴钼礤 桧玟疣 蓄耨梃 惕礴漯噔 耋狷尻蜞. 蒡 疋玎眍 溴蜞朦睇 镱龛爨龛屐 磬 箴钼礤 戾滂鲨眈觇 铕汔龛玎鲨 忸珥桕帼 镱蝠遽眍耱彘 镟鲨屙蝾 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼, 羿牝梓羼觇 玎蝠囹, 镱礤皴眄 镱蝈瘘 痂耜钼 [6,15]

杨铗忮蝰蜮屙眍, 麇 龛驽 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 蝈 戾睃 耱铊祛耱. 族 恹 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 蝈 犷朦 觐腓麇耱忸 疱耋瘃钼 彘 眢骓 [22,27].

亦觇 钺疣珙, 疱泱蝾痼 耠邃箦 蝈耱桊钼囹 觐眦屣鲨 狍潴 镳铄牝钼 磬 镳铗铗栾圊 犷脲 恹耦觐 溴蜞腓玎鲨彘. 蒡 镱玮铍栩 颀觐眍扈螯 怵屐, 翳磬眈 篑桦 磬 镳铗驽龛 怦邈 骅珥屙眍泐 鲨觌 镳铄牝桊钼囗 噤囡蜞鲨 磬 箴钼礤 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨. 项-忤滂祛祗, 铒, 镱塍麇眄 镱 疱珞朦蜞蜞 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 忭邃疱龛 镳嚓蜩觇 镨腩蝽 镳铄牝钼, 镱耠箧栩 犭嚆钿囹眍 镱麾铋 潆 钽.

殃铕铖螯 桦 猁耱痤蜞. 蒡 踵疣牝屦桉蜩赅 镱赅玎蝈 镳铗铗栾, 镱漉钿泐 潆 觐腚尻蜩忭钽 钺耋驿屙 疣珉梓睇 桎彘 觐眦屣鲨 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼. 雾 镱玮铍弪 猁耱痤 忭铖栩 镳噔觇 钺眍怆螯 镳 礤钺躅滂祛耱 蝠遽钼囗 眍痨囹桠眍 镳噔钼铋 徉琨, 疱汶囔屙蜩痼彘 鲥腓, 鲥脲恹 漕镱腠栩咫 镱赅玎蝈腓犿圉桀磬朦眍泐狅痤尻蜞, 玎溧麒 疱珞朦蜞螓 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 潆 疱汨铐钼 [28,20].

橡铗铗栾 龛珀铋 溴蜞腓玎鲨彘 磬 箴钼礤 桧玟疣 蓄耨梃-惕礴漯噔 耋狷尻蜞 镱祛汔弪 猁耱痤 镳钼屦栩 镱耱噔脲眄 玎溧麒 镳铄牝囔 觐痤蜿桢 耩铌 扈龛爨朦睇扈 玎蝠囹囔 蝾朦觐 磬 磬鬣朦睇 囡圊 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 麇疱 疱汨铐嚯 铕汔睇 怆囫蜩 耋狷尻蜞, 戾滂鲨眈觇 铕汔龛玎鲨. 杨铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 镳 耋耱忸忄龛 镳铄牝 磬 镳铗驽龛 铒疱溴敫眄钽 怵屐屙 耱囗钼蝰 镱蝽 溴蜞腓, 礤钺躅滂祛耱 忭羼屙 桤戾礤龛, 觐痧尻蜩痤忸 [29,2].

杨铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 磬 箴钼礤 桧玟疣 耋狷尻蜞-体滂鲨眈赅 铕汔龛玎鲨 耜铕铖螯 漕疣犷蜿 筲咫梓桠噱蝰, 桤戾龛螯 镳铗铗栾 龛珀钽 箴钼 耱囗钼栩 镳铢 猁耱疱 麇 镳 桉镱朦珙忄龛 恹耦觐 溴蜞腓玎鲨, 镱铎 蜞犭桷 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 磬 溧眄铎 箴钼礤 - 耩邃.

袜 箴钼礤 篦囫蝽桕钼 镳铄牝 邃桷桧耜 铕汔龛玎鲨-相鲨屙蚧 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 恹耦赅, 磬 恹躅溴 禧 镱塍鬣屐 疱珞朦蜞 镳铄牝, 爨犟桁嚯 镳栳腓驽眄 觐礤黜铎, 镱铎 礤 箐桠栩咫, 黩 磬 邈 耦玟囗桢 镱蝠遽箦蝰 漕镱腠栩咫铄 怵屐, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 耜铕铖螯 漕疣犷蝾 扈龛扈玷痼弪 镳 恹耦觐 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铄牝. 橡 铎 铒, 镱塍麇眄 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 磬 怦艴 箴钼 [23,30], 箧 耦玟嚯 犭嚆铒痂蝽 篑腩忤 潆 忭羼屙 桤戾礤龛 眍痨囹桠眢 镳噔钼簋 徉珞 耋狷尻蝾, 镥疱耢铗痼 镱玷鲨 翦溴疣朦睇 铕汔眍 桉镱腠栩咫铋 怆囫蜩 铗眍龛 疱汨铐钼, 篦栩 耧弼梏桕 镱耠邃龛.

吾疣蝽 疋琰 疱嚯桉蜩黜铖螯. 橡嚓蜩麇耜栝 铒 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 镱赅玎, 黩 镱蝠遽栩咫 篑塍 猁腓 犷脲 钺牝桠睇 徨耧痂耱疣耱睇 疋铊 铞屙赅 镥瘃镥牝桠 疱嚯桤圉梃 狍潴 镳铄牝钼 (爨赍蜞 镳铄牝), 礤驽腓 镱 桉蝈麇龛 怵屐屙 [31,28]. 武磬觐, 镳铗铗栾, 龛珀铋 溴蜞腓玎鲨彘, 桤磬鬣朦眍 耋耱怏 镳钺咫, 觐蝾瘥 镱蝠遽栩咫 篑塍 疱泱蝾瘥 祛泱 蝾腙钼囹 滂囔弪疣朦眍 镳铗桠铒铍铈眍. 蒡 疋铪 铟屦邃 桉赅驵弪 篚箐弪 钺疣蝽簋 疋琰 祛驽 镳桠羼蜩 犷朦 镳钺脲爨 镳 疣琊噌铗赍 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼, 铠栳铟睇 疱珞朦蜞蜞.

橡铗铗栾 耦 耩邃礤 恹耦觐 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 犷脲 疱嚯桉蜩黜, 黩 溴豚弪 铗 戾蝾 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 犷脲 镳栳腓驽眄 觐礤黜铎 疱珞朦蜞蝮. 蒡 镱玮铍栩 镱塍麒螯 铗琨恹 铗 耱彘牾铍溴痤 镳铄牝, 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 疱嚯, 蜞 赅 狍潴 桁弪 溴腩 溴蜞朦眍 镳铕噌铗囗眍 忮瘃桢 镳铄牝. 项耜铍 恹耦觇 箴钼屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 爨犟桁嚯 镳栳腓驽 觐礤黜铎 疱珞朦蜞蝮 镳铄牝, 蝾 镳 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 龛 镱蝠遽栩咫 篑塍 镱塍鬣 镳嚓蜩麇耜栝 铒, 爨犟桁嚯 镳栳腓驽眄 疱嚯桉蜩黜铎.

吾耋驿屙桢

橡梓桧 耦玟囗 镳铗铗栾钼 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼, 蝾 麒耠 铗疣耠 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 镳羼脲潴 祉铈羼蜮 鲥脲. 喻栩 铒桉囗睇 踵疣牝屦桉蜩觇 镱赅玎蝈脲 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 (耜铕铖螯, 耱铊祛耱, 钺疣蝽 疋琰 疱嚯桉蜩黜铖螯) 镳桁屙栩咫 耱屣屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 祛骓 恹礤耱 镳嚓蜩麇耜桴 恹忸漕.

骂-镥疴, 镳铗铗栾 镱玮铍 耧屦桁屙蜩痤忄螯 疣珉梓睇扈 桎扈 疱龛扈. 绣泱蝾 祛驽 镳钺钼囹 礤耜铍 忸珈铈睇 忄痂囗蝾 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝, 忭铖栩 疋铄怵屐屙眍 觐痧尻蜩痤怅 潆 箅篦龛 耧塍囹圉桀眄 踵疣牝屦桉蜩 耔耱屐, 趔黻鲨铐桊簋 铒疱溴敫眄 篑腩忤 潆 漕耱桄屙 篑蜞眍怆屙睇 鲥脲 礤钺躅滂祛 疱珞朦蜞蜩忭铖螯, 翦牝桠眍耱 箐钼脲蜮铕疙眍耱.

骂-怛铕, 镳铗铗栾 磬汶漤 聃屐囹梓眍 溴祛眈蝠桊箦 镫囗 溴轳蜮栝 铗眍龛 觐礤黜钽 镳钿箨蜞, 耧铖钺耱怏 纛痨箅桊钼赍 嚓蝮嚯铋 (溴轳蜮簋) 蜞牝桕 恹疣犷蜿 耱疣蝈汨 鲥 镱耠邃簋 铒蜩扈玎鲨. 泥眄铄 钺耱蝈朦耱忸 蜞赕 镱恹弪 翦牝桠眍耱 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 耱彘牾铍溴痤 镳铄牝.

-蝠弪, 镳铗铗栾 溧弪 疱嚯桉蜩黜铄 镳邃耱噔脲龛 钺 篑蜞眍怆屙睇 耩铌圊 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳铄牝钼, 潆 漕耱桄屙 鲥脲恹 镱赅玎蝈脲, 翳磬眈钼 桧 疱耋瘃囔, 觐蝾瘥 篑蜞眍怆屙 耦汶帏屙扈 桧 眍痨囹桠睇扈 嚓蜞扈.

-麇蜮屦螓, 镳铗铗栾 泐疣玟 镳铢 忭铖栩 桤戾礤龛, 麇 觐礤黜 疱珞朦蜞, 珥圜栩 羼螯 忸珈铈眍耱 祛溴腓痤忄龛 镳铗铗栾 镳铄牝 磬 疣眄桴 耱噤, 镳铘桦嚓蜩痤忄螯 痂耜, 黩 镥瘃镥牝桠 镱玮铍栩 铒蜩扈玷痤忄螯 狺滏弪 耩铌 邈 桉镱腠屙.

-螓, 镳铗铗栾 祛泱 忮耱 礤铈桎囗睇 铗牮 桎 潆 疣玮栩 镳铄牝, 黩 祛驽 镱漤螯 觐礤黜 疱珞朦蜞 镳铄牝 磬 犷脲 耦忮瘌屙睇 蝈蹴铍钽梓羼觇 箴钼屙. 蒡 疋铪 铟屦邃 铗牮噱 妁 犷朦 镥瘃镥牝桠 潆 疣玮栩 礤钺躅滂祛耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 蝈蹴铍钽栝 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 耵屦 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛.

亦觇 钺疣珙, 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 怆弪 眍恹 箫疣怆屙麇耜桁 桧耱痼戾眚铎 铗疣耠 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 祛驽 耱囹 翦牝桠睇 疱珏疴铎 潆 漕耱桄屙 镱耱噔脲眄 鲥脲 翦溴疣朦眍泐 镳铄牝 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 漯噔铑躔囗屙桢. 武磬觐, 礤钺躅滂祛 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 镱蝠遽箦 漕镱腠栩咫 翳磬眈钼 怵屐屙睇 疣聃钿钼, 钺玎蝈朦眍泐 眍痨囹桠眍泐 箴邈箅桊钼囗.

蔓忸潲

  1. 绣泱蝾痼 耠邃箦 蝈耱桊钼囹 觐眦屣鲨 狍潴 镳铄牝钼 磬 镳铗铗栾圊 犷脲 恹耦觐 溴蜞腓玎鲨彘. 蒡 镱玮铍栩 颀觐眍扈螯 怵屐, 翳磬眈 篑桦 磬 镳铗驽龛 怦邈 骅珥屙眍泐 鲨觌 镳铄牝桊钼囗 噤囡蜞鲨 磬 箴钼礤 戾滂鲨眈觐 铕汔龛玎鲨. 项-忤滂祛祗, 铒, 镱塍麇眄 镱 疱珞朦蜞蜞 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 忭邃疱龛 镳嚓蜩觇 镨腩蝽 镳铄牝钼, 镱耠箧栩 犭嚆钿囹眍 镱麾铋 潆 钽.
  2. 物, 镱塍麇眄 镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 磬 怦艴 箴钼, 箧 耦玟嚯 犭嚆铒痂蝽 篑腩忤 潆 忭羼屙 桤戾礤龛 眍痨囹桠眢 镳噔钼簋 徉珞 耋狷尻蝾, 镥疱耢铗痼 镱玷鲨 翦溴疣朦睇 铕汔眍 桉镱腠栩咫铋 怆囫蜩 铗眍龛 疱汨铐钼, 篦栩 耧弼梏桕 镱耠邃龛.
  3. 蔓耦觇 箴钼屙 溴蜞腓玎鲨 镳铗铗栾 爨犟桁嚯 镳栳腓娓 觐礤黜铎 疱珞朦蜞蝮 镳铄牝, 镱铎 镳 忡噼祛溴轳蜮梃 龛 镱蝠遽栩咫 篑塍 镱塍鬣 镳嚓蜩麇耜栝 铒, 爨犟桁嚯 镳栳腓驽眄 疱嚯桉蜩黜铎.

凌犭桀沭圄

  1. 暑忄脲 .. 橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 鲨麴钼铋 钺疣珙忄蝈朦眍 耩邃 (铒 昧臀 "狸噤屐 鲨麴钼 蝈蹴铍钽栝"). 狸噤屐梓羼觇 忮耱龛. 洛耱龛 燕黻-襄蝈疳箴泷觐 嚓噤屐梃 镱耱滂镫铎眍泐 镥溧泐汨麇耜钽 钺疣珙忄龛 2020; (3): 38-47.
  2. 铃腩 .., 绵怵桧 .., 锑痍钼 .. 锑蝈爨蜩麇耜 祛溴朦 疣耧疱溴脲眄钽 镳铄牝桊钼囗 镳铗铗栾钼 爨眍耱痤屙梃. 如忮耱 怏珙. 锑眍耱痤屙桢 2019; (9): 7-19. DOI: 10.18698/0536-1044-2019-9-7-19 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/matematicheskaya-model-raspredelennogo-proektirovaniya-prototipov-v-mashinostroenii (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.09.2023).
  3. Aboulkhai N.T., Maskery I., Tuck C. The microstructure and mechanical properties of selectively laser melted AlSi10Mg: The effect of a conventional T6-like heat treatment. Materials Science & Engineering A 2016; 667: 139146. DOI: 10.1016/J.MSEA.2016.04.092
  4. 皿邂 .., 阵皴轫钼 .. 填潴朦磬 镳钽疣祆 镱 3D-祛溴腓痤忄龛: 疣琊噌铗赅 疱嚯桤圉. 橡铘羼耔铐嚯铄 钺疣珙忄龛 瘥眍 蝠箐 2016; (4): 34-37. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/modulnaya-programma-po-3d-modelirovaniyu-razrabotka-i-realizatsiya (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  5. 署圜蝈.. 骡邃屙桢 Rational Unified Process. 填耜忄: 饶 "妈朦祚"; 2002. 240 .
  6. 锣痿咫 翌滗 青觇. 橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢. 橡嚓蜩麇耜铄 痼觐忸漶蜮. 填耜忄: 如溧蝈朦耱忸 囗, 肉囗钼 藻疳屦; 2013. 240 .
  7. 皿腓邂 .. 务眍忭 囫镥牝 疣琊噌铗觇 戾滂鲨眈觇 桧纛痨圉桀眄 耔耱屐. 吗圜 桧纛痨圉桀眄 蝈蹴铍钽梃 2014; (5): 10-13. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osnovnye-aspekty-razrabotki-meditsinskih-informatsionnyh-sistem (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 28.09.2023).
  8. 项眍爨疱 .., 翔牦脲忄 .. 体蝾漕腩汨 磬篦睇 桉耠邃钼囗栝: 篦遽. 镱耦徼. 襄痨: 饶 屦. 磬. 桉耠邃. 镱腓蝈蹴. 箜-蜞; 2014. 186 .
  9. 赔溧觐 .., 离脲眍 .., 鲤蝈禳邂 .., 它忸忄 .., 离艴桧 .., 皿 .. 杨忮瘌屙耱忸忄龛 溴蝈朦眍耱 泐痤漶觐 镱腓觌桧桕 磬 铖眍忮 徨疱骐桠 蝈蹴铍钽栝. 袜箨 祛腩潲 Eruditio Juvenium 2020; (4): 481-494. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sovershenstvovanie-deyatelnosti-gorodskoy-polikliniki-na-osnove-berezhlivyh-tehnologiy. DOI: 10.23888/HMJ202084481-494 (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  10. 砚囗噤珏 .. 礤觐蝾瘥 囫镥牝圊 疣玮栩 镫囫蜩麇耜铋 蹊痼疸梃 蓄耨栝耜铋 藻溴疣鲨. 秒噔睇 怵圜 2015; (12): 76-82.
  11. 耦玟囗梃 耦忪羼蝽铋 觐扈耨梃 惕龛耱屦耱忄 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 蓄耨栝耜铋 藻溴疣鲨 镱 镳桢礻 疱珞朦蜞蝾 恹镱腠屙睇 疣犷 (囡钼 疣犷) 镳钽疣祆 杨眍泐 泐耋溧瘃蜮 噻疣犷蜿 眍恹 耧桧嚯 耔耱屐 桉镱朦珙忄龛屐 蝈蹴铍钽栝 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 蹊痼疸梓羼觐 脲麇龛 溴蝈 驽臌扈 怵铈溴眄 溴纛痨圉扈 镱怵彐溴龛扈 镱玮铐铟龛赅: 橡桕噻 惕龛耱屦耱忄 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 性 铗 18 棹 2021 . 648. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://static-0.minzdrav.gov.ru/system/attachments/attaches/000/055/642/original/MZRF_2021_All_08-04-2021-Preview.pdf?1619014721. (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023)
  12. 项锺箝觐 .., 泥龛朦麇黻 .., 拎鲨磬 .., 疏腓驽觐忄 .., 枢疣顸 .., 鲤蜞祛眍忄 .. 骂珈铈眍耱 桉镱朦珙忄龛 滂玎轫-禧屙 潆 箅篦龛 镳铞羼襦 铌噻囗 戾滂鲨眈觐 镱祛. 袜篦眍-镳嚓蜩麇耜栝 骟痦嚯 戾滂鲨睇 2022; (1): 132-145 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/vozmozhnosti-ispolzovaniya-dizayn-myshleniya-dlya-uluchsheniya-protsessa-okazaniya-meditsinskoy-pomoschi DOI: 10.17709/2410-1893-2022-9-1-12. (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  13. 项锺箝觐 .., 泥龛朦麇黻 .., 拎鲨磬 .., 鲤蜞祛眍忄 .. 软眍忄鲨铐睇 镱漉钿 箫疣怆屙梃 忡噼祛溴轳蜮桢 镟鲨屙蜞扈. 暑祜脲犟睇 镳钺脲禧 皴痄鬻眍-耦耋滂耱 玎犷脲忄龛 2021; 10(S2): 68-72. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/innovatsionnyy-podhod-v-upravlenii-vzaimodeystviem-s-patsientami. DOI: 10.17802/2306-1278-2021-10-2S-68-72 (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  14. 羊屙桧 .. 鼠疣耦忄 .., 央屣麇黻 .. 袜鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛 蓄耨梃: 铒 镥瘃镥牝桠 铐铎梓羼觐泐 疣玮栩 镳铄牝眍泐 镱漉钿 箫疣怆屙棹. 蓐铐铎桕 镳邃镳桧桁囹咫蜮 2021; 126 (1): 1008-1011. DOI 10.34925/EIP.2021.126.01.196.
  15. 脏躔篁滂眍忄 .. 义铕 镳嚓蜩赅 疱嚯桤圉梃 镳桀痂蝈蝽 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 蓄耨梃. 洛耱龛 狸噤屐梃 铐铎梓羼觐 徨珙镟耥铖蜩 搪 蓄耨梃 2009; (3): 40-44. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/teoriya-i-praktika-realizatsii-prioritetnyh-natsionalnyh-proektov-v-rossii (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  16. 哧钼脲忄 .., 诣蝾忄 .. 绣汨铐嚯 镳桀痂蝈螓 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 (磬 镳桁屦 骂痤礤骜觐 钺豚耱). 绣汨铐嚯 铐铎桕 箫疣怆屙桢: 尻蝠铐睇 磬篦睇 骟痦嚯 2020; 2 (62): 180-183. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://eee-region.ru/article/6210/ (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  17. 橡钺脲禧 耦忮瘌屙耱忸忄龛 狺滏弪眍 镱腓蜩觇 疱汨铐钼 祗龛鲨镟腓蝈蝾. 觏.: 茵箐 腻蝾 磬篦眍-镳嚓蜩麇耜铋 觐眙屦屙鲨 (2830 皴眚狃 2011, 襄蝠铉噔钿耱). 襄蝠铉噔钿耜: 如溧蝈朦耱忸 襄蝠糜; 2011. 255 . 绣骅 漕耱箫: http://openbudget.karelia.ru/conf10/docs/conf10_book.pdf. (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023)
  18. 肃怵钼 .. 橡嚓蜩赅 桧桷栲蜩忭钽 狺滏弪桊钼囗 耋狷尻蜞 性. 署筱臌 耱铍 龛鲨囹桠眍 狺滏弪桊钼囗桢 赅 忄骓 羿牝铕 耦鲨嚯-铐铎梓羼觐泐 疣玮栩 耋狷尻蝾 性 5 溴赅狃 2017 . 绣骅 漕耱箫: http://www.council.gov.ru/media/files/1h99uVOK05 ia7rkZfgAAPf5A6vATScwA.pdf (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  19. 吾 铕汔龛玎鲨 镳铄牝眍 溴蝈朦眍耱 橡噔栩咫蜮 蓄耨栝耜铋 藻溴疣鲨: 项耱囗钼脲龛 橡噔栩咫蜮 性 铗 2018.10.31; N1288. : 杨狃囗桢 玎觐眍溧蝈朦耱忄 性 2018.11.05, N45, 耱. 6947. 绣骅 漕耱箫: http://government.ru/docs/34523/. (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023)
  20. 翔痤骊钼 .. 念耱桡眢螓 疱珞朦蜞螓 铖眍忭 痂耜 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 漯噔铑躔囗屙桢. 觏.: 蓄耨 祛腩溧: 厌铕龛 爨蝈痂嚯钼 XIV 埋屦铖耔轳觐 磬篦眍-镳嚓蜩麇耜铋 觐眙屦屙鲨 戾驿箜囵钿睇 篦囫蜩屐 (叔戾痤忸, 1921 囡疱 2022 泐溧). 暑耱桕钼 .., 疱溧牝铕. 叔戾痤忸: 鼠玑囫耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 蝈蹴梓羼觇 箜桠屦耔蝈 桁屙 .. 妙疳圜邂; 2022. . 84232.1-84232.6.
  21. 吾 篁忮疰溴龛 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 镳钽疣祆 蓄耨栝耜铋 藻溴疣鲨 "朽玮栩桢 玟疣忸铛疣礤龛": 项耱囗钼脲龛 橡噔栩咫蜮 性 铗 2017.12.26; N 1640. : 杨狃囗桢 玎觐眍溧蝈朦耱忄 性 铗 2018.01.01, N 1, . II, 耱. 373. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://static-0.minzdrav.gov.ru/system/attachments/attaches/000/036/758/original/皖忄_孟_项耱_闲訽铗_26.12.2017_筥1640.pdf?1515502492. (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023)
  22. 离桁徉邂 .. 朽琊噌铗赅 镳铗铗栾 web-襦轵 潆 戾滂鲨眈觐泐 篦疱驿屙. 觏.: 填腩溴纥, 磬箨, 蜮铕麇耱忸 2019: 锑蝈痂嚯 XVII 戾驸箸钼耜铋 磬篦眍-镳嚓蜩麇耜铋 觐眙屦屙鲨 耱箐屙蝾 囫镨疣眚钼 (2019 2223 爨, 戊耜). 项臌眈觇 .., 疱溧牝铕. 戊耜: 戊耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 蝈蹴梓羼觇 箜桠屦耔蝈; 2019. . 329-333.
  23. 令邂 .. 橡钺脲禧 翳磬眈桊钼囗 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 "卿疣忸铛疣礤龛". 觏.: 橡钺脲禧 箫疣怆屙, 铐铎桕 镳噔 钺泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 疱汨铐嚯铎 爨聒蜞徉: 襻铕龛 耱囹彘 VIII 埋屦铖耔轳觐 磬篦眍-镳嚓蜩麇耜铋 觐眙屦屙鲨, 镱疋眄铋 70-脲蜩 襄礴屙耜钽 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍泐 嚆疣痦钽 箜桠屦耔蝈蜞. (襄礴, 2021, 1718 皴眚狃). 襄礴: 襄礴屙耜栝 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 嚆疣痦 箜桠屦耔蝈, 2021. . 38-42.
  24. 署囗珏邂 .., 勿腩忄 .., 蜩磬 .., 灭桡铕桕 .. 杨篦囫蜩 磬皴脲龛 疱汨铐 疱嚯桤圉梃 磬鲨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼: 疱蝠铖镥牝桠 镥瘃镥牝桠. 绣汨铐腩汨 2020;3(112): 490-515. DOI: 10.15507/2413-1407.112.028.202003.490-515. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/souchastie-naseleniya-regiona-v-realizatsii-natsionalnyh-proektov-retrospektiva-i-perspektiva (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  25. 肃怵棂邂 .., 襄蝠篚桧 .. 体蝾潲 耩邃耱忄 桧驽礤痂 镳钽疣祆眍泐 钺羼镥麇龛. 填耜忄: 淘胰, 2007. 415 .
  26. 相怆 .., 念鲥黻 .., 灭桡铕 .., 鹏疱祛 .. 灭圄梓羼觐 镳铄牝桊钼囗桢 祛溴腓 镳铗铗栾 耔耱屐 疣耧疱溴脲眄 镟疣戾蝠囔 (磬 镳桁屦 汨漯钿桧囔梓羼觐 耔耱屐). 觏.: 相怆 .., 疱溧牝铕. 杨怵屐屙睇 桧纛痨圉桀眄 蝈蹴铍钽梃 钺疣珙忄龛 磬篦睇 桉耠邃钼囗 (讶椅腿-2021). 锑蝈痂嚯 VII 体驿箜囵钿眍 磬篦眍-蝈蹴梓羼觐 觐眙屦屙鲨 (23 眍狃2021, 念礤鲫). 念礤鲫: 念礤鲫栝 磬鲨铐嚯 蝈蹴梓羼觇 箜桠屦耔蝈; 2021. . 118-137. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://rep.polessu.by/bitstream/123456789/24015/1/vybor.pdf (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  27. 洛瘐钼耜 .., 惕蹂邂 .., 蓄爨眍 .. 聋耱痤 耦玟囗桢 镳铗铗栾钼 沭圄梓羼觇 镳邃耱噔脲龛 溧眄 (溧铕漕) 潆 痼觐忸泐 铕汔磬 倘. 吗圜 桧纛痨圉桀眄 蝈蹴铍钽梃. 2019; (4): 58-64. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/bystroe-sozdanie-prototipov-graficheskih-predstavleniy-dannyh-dashbordov-dlya-arm-rukovoditelya-v-mis (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  28. 烹桉邋忄 .. 橡铗铗栾桊钼囗桢 赅 镥疴 耱噤 Product Evolution Canvas. 觏.: 暑黻箴 塍鼬桴 耱箐屙麇耜桴 疣犷. 厌铕龛 耱囹彘 XV 戾驿箜囵钿眍泐 磬篦眍-桉耠邃钼囹咫觐泐 觐黻箴襦 (襄礴, 20 溴赅狃, 2022). 襄礴: 袜箨 橡铖忮龛; 2022. . 9-12. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://naukaip.ru/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/K-441.pdf (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  29. 泪疣祛忄 .., 骂痤腩忄 .., 肉囗钼 .. 橡铎彐篁铟睇 栩钽 疱嚯桤圉梃 疱汨铐嚯 镳铄牝钼 磬鲨铐嚯钽 镳铄牝 "卿疣忸铛疣礤龛" 绣耧筢腓赍 暑扈. 洛耱龛 蓄耒漯噔磬溏铕 2022; (1): 16-23. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://www.fgu.ru/upload/iblock/761/761e143674e3e21b0e09a32de9c021f1.pdf (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  30. 令黻 .., 丸觇蜩磬 .., 扬桊桧 .. 务眍恹 镳铗铗栾桊钼囗 钺疣珙忄蝈朦眍 镳铞羼皴 狍潴 桧驽礤痤. 橡铘羼耔铐嚯铄 钺疣珙忄龛 蓄耨梃 玎 痼徨骖 2022; 2 (46): 141-145. DOI: 10.54509/22203036_2022_2_141. 绣骅 漕耱箫: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osnovy-prototipirovaniya-v-obrazovatelnom-protsesse-buduschih-inzhenerov (泥蜞 漕耱箫: 16.08.2023).
  31. 灭桧翳脘 逆., 仡痱 . 脏狃桕 疣琊噌铗觇 镳钽疣祆. 项蝾觐忄 襻铕赅 蜩镱恹 镳桦铈屙栝, 祛溴腓痤忄龛, 耱痼牝箴 桧耱痼戾眚. [襄. 囗汶]. 填耜忄: 挝 . . 妈朦祚; 2007. 592 .

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