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Main arrow Archive of previous Issues arrow 3 2011 (19) arrow Needs and satisfaction with life course in elderly women of retirement age
Needs and satisfaction with life course in elderly women of retirement age Print
Thursday, 29 September 2011

Summary. Social, political, and economic changes of the society, under current general conditions, inevitably affects elderly and old peoples situation, and consequently their needs and satisfaction of needs.

Human needs and interests form an inseparable cluster, for satisfaction of which individuals develop various forms of social activities, which eventually enable them to acquire some kind of life course sensation.

Extent of satisfaction of individual needs and interests arising here could not be directly quantified. But it is obviously linked to richness of content of the job and leisure, quality of nourishment, quality and fashionable character of dress and of household utensils, comfortable lodging, as well as to functional capabilities of social institutes, consumer and social services, also to social relations quality, quenching of knowledge and creative aspirations, etc. All in all these sides of human existence form the so-called quality of life.

Demographic tendencies in Russia are quite the same as in the world at large, with growing increase of old people number and proportion. This new reality lays a significant extra burden on the functions of public health, implying emphasis on long-term medical measures, specific sanitary hygienic care, possible rehabilitation for preserving the capability for self-maintaining activities.

In quite a few countries of the world, nearly half the budget item for the system of medical sanitary care is absorbed by medical care for the elderly people. More over, in UK, for example, per capita medical care expenditure for persons of 75 years of age and more exceeds 6-foldly that for the persons in the age range of 16-64 years (Account on world development. Washington. 2003).

In Russia, people of 60 years of age or more comprise 27.1% of overall population, with their medical care expenses reaching 33.2% of total medical budget funding. It is absolutely obvious that this tendency is only to grow in future.

Retirement age population in Russia reached 29.9% in proportion, while people older than 60 years comprised 27.1% of the total population of Russia, with proportion of females of advanced senior age groups comprising 20.5% of total female population of Russia. In Moscow region (Jan.1st 2010) these figures were 25.5%, 23.3%, and 17.4%, accordingly.

The more older is the age group, the larger proportion of females dominates in it, as female-favoring gender-related mortality differs greatly with the age mounting, and this tendency is prominent in population with ability to work. Thus aging of society is associated with feminization of the society.

Gender structuring of the society necessitates, in particular, differential attitudes as concerns geriatric medical care, and it is noteworthy in this regard that the life course of elderly women is complicated not only by the problems of old age, household difficulties, and often lonely status, but also by quite appreciable restrictions in acquiring payable jobs which eventually limits their ability to pay for medical care.

Needs of elderly women were structured in this study along social and hygienic constituents.

UN principles appeal to helping people of older generation to lead a life of creative and full value nature, and to providing them with everything necessary for reaching and maintaining of descent quality of life.

These principles include a set of ethical standards and also recommendations for distinguishing between the priorities as concerns realization of fundamental regulations of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, relating also to the situation with old people. The Preamble speaks of the recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family The Article 25 says: Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age and other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

Key words: females, old age, retired women, lifestyle, quality of life.


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