About this Journal Publication ethics Editorial Board Editorial Council Editorial Office For the Authors Contacts

News feeds

Journal in Databases


Google Scholar

Google Scholar

For authors' attention

Publication is free of charge

In aims to provide interconnection of publications in international scientific journals using Digital Object Identification - DOI, our editorial office incorporated the journal "Social aspects of population health" into international reference system CrossRef.

Since 2016 DOI will be assigned to all scientific articles published in our journal free of charge.

Also DOI will be assigned to all articles published in 2014 and 2015 free of charge as well
Main arrow Archive of previous Issues arrow 6 2011 (22) arrow Reproductive losses as medical social problem in demographic development of Russia
Reproductive losses as medical social problem in demographic development of Russia Print
Wednesday, 01 February 2012

V.Yi. Starodubov1, L.P. Sukhanova1, Yu.G. Sychenkov2
1Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, Moscow
2Clinical Hospital No.8 of Federal Medical Biological Agency, town Obninsk, Moscow Region

Summary. Reproductive losses constitutes irreplaceable deficiency in vital potential of the population, such loss drastically differs from mortality in other age groups because unborn fetes or dead infants mean irretrievable detriment to human capital.

Total reproductive losses for the whole post-soviet period (1991-2010) amounted in Russia to 5,515,667 fetes. During this period some 28,866,559 infants were born, thus 19.1 dead fetes and infants accounted for every 100 born and living infants. Fetes and infants loss amounted to 10.9% (stillborn 3.5%, dead infants - 7.4%) in total reproductive losses, prenatal loss to 89.1% (spontaneous abortions 65.3%, induced abortion for medical indications 15.4%, and for social indications 8.4%.

Changes in total reproductive losses during two decades of post-soviet period fit into two distinctive sub-periods: in 1991-1999 the loss was constantly growing (at the beginning 19.2 dead fetes and infants accounted for every 100 born and living infants and by the end the rate was 24.2); in 2000-2010 the loss was diminishing and has reached the rate of 12.7 at the end of the this second sub-period. A decrease in this second sub-period was due to diminished fetes and infants loss, i.e. diminished perinatal and infants mortality. The portion of pre-natal loss in total reproductive loss has increased - mainly due to spontaneous abortions.

A study of perinatal mortality revealed a reduction in the stillborn as the main possible constituent element for reducing perinatal mortality. In this an antenatal mortality is to be targeted first of all. The engrossing portion of external causes in the structure of infant mortality has put these causes on the third place (from the previous fifth place) in consequence of mortality causes - partly because the preceding items (that of death from respiratory diseases and death from infectious diseases) drastically reduced in number. But the very growing importance of the item of death from external reasons indicated more significant role of unfavorable social factors, and also pointed to low living standards of the majority of the population in Russia.

Infant mortality began to differ much as concerns rural and urban areas: the rural infant mortality had been exceeding the urban one by 7.6% in 1990, and by 31.9% in 2010. This trend has obviously reflected enhanced differentiation of the grade of medical service and of general social conditions in these two contexts. The growing role of the causes of infant mortality beyond pure medical reasons for it has prompted a conclusion that appropriate social support for families should be put as the first priority in demographic development of Russia.

Lack of methodology for studying causes of reproductive loss has led to underestimation of the role of miscarriage as main factor of reproductive loss. Really its portion in total reproductive loss has been growing all the way, hence its possible reduction could readily substantiate a main reserve in increasing the birth rate. Moreover, reduced miscarriage could be a viable alternative to the wide introduction of supplementary reproductive technologies or to prohibition of artificial abortions.

Key words: Reproductive losses, Fetus loss, Infant mortality, Stillborn children, Perinatal mortality, Miscarriage, Spontaneous abortion, Demographic development.


  1. Arkhangelskiy V.N. Rozhdaemost v sovremennoy Rossii i ee vozrastnaya model: dinamika i determinatsiya [Birth-rate in present-day Russia and its age model: dynamics and determination]. In: Demographic Development of Russia: problems of population policies and strengthen social support. Proceedings of All-Russian scientific-practical conference 2001. Apr 19-20. Moscow. 2011.
  2. Baranov A.A., Albitskiy V.Yu. Smertnost detskogo naseleniya Rossii. [Mortality in children population of Russia]. Moscow: Literra; 2007. 328 p.
  3. Burduli G.M. Reproduktivnye poteri (prichiny, faktory riska, puti profilaktiki) [Reproductive losses (causes, risk factors, and ways of prevention)]. [PhD. Thesis]. Moscow. 1998. 47 p.
  4. Velichkovskiy B.T. Zhiznesposobnost natsii. Rol sotsialnogo stressa i geneticheskikh protsessov v populyatsii v razvitii demograficheskogo krizisa i izmenenii sostoyaniya zdorovya naseleniya Rossii [National vitality. The role of social stress and genetic processes in the population for the development of demographic crisis and changes in health status of the Russian population]. Moscow. 2009. 176 p.
  5. Vishnevskiy A.G., Andreev E.M., Bogoyavlenskiy D.D., Zakharov S.V., Ivanova E.I., Kvasha E.A., Sakevich V.I., Kharkova T.L. Demograficheskaya modernizatsiya Rossii, 1900-2000 [Demographic modernization of Russia, 1900-2000]. Vishnevskiy A.G., editor. Moscow: Novoe izdatelstvo; 2006. 608 p.
  6. Zhdanova V.Yu., Trubnikova L.I., Tadzhieva V.D., Izmaylova F.A., Martyanova E.N. KhKh1 vek: analiz antenatalnoy smertnosti [I century: analysis of antenatal mortality]. Proceedings of X All-Russian Scientific Forum of the anniversary "Mother and Child". Moscow. 2009. P. 491-492.
  7. Mukhina T.V. Nekotorye aspekty reproduktivnogo zdorovya i reproduktivnogo povedeniya zhenshchin (po materialam pilotnogo obsledovaniya [Some aspects of womens reproductive health and reproductive behavior (by materials of a pilot study)]. In: New technology in the modern health care. Collection of scientific works. FGU TsNIIOIZ Roszdrava. Moscow 2007. Issue 2. P. 96-100.
  8. Salov I.A., Marinushkin D.N. Akusherskaya taktika pri vnutriutrobnoy gibeli ploda [Obstetric care in intrauterine fetal death] Proceedings of the 4 All-Russian forum "Mother and Child". Moscow. 2002. Issue 1. P. 516-519.
  9. Sidelnikova V.M. Nevynashivanie beremennosti - sovremennyy vzglyad na problemu [Pregnancy loss a present-day view on the problem]. Akusherstvo i ginekologiya 2007;(5):24-26.
  10. Starodubov V.I., Tsybulskaya I.S., Sukhanova L.P. Okhrana zdorovya materi i rebenka kak prioritetnaya problema sovremennoy Rossii [Maternity and child health protection as a priority problem in present-day Russia]. Sovremennye meditsinskie tekhnologii 2009;(2):11-16.
  11. Strizhakov A.N., Ignatko I.V. Poterya beremennosti [Pregnancy loss]. Moscow: MIA. 2007. 224 p.
  12. Sukhanova L.P., Sklyar M.S. Detskaya i perinatalnaya smertnost v Rossii: tendentsii, struktura, faktory riska [Infant and perinatal mortality in Russia: tendencies, structure, and risk factors]. Sotsialnye aspekty zdorovya naseleniya [Online Scientific Journal]. 2007 [cited 2011 Sep 22]; 4(4). Available from: http://vestnik.mednet.ru/content/view/46/30/
  13. Talalaev A.G., Samsygina G.A. Perspektivy snizheniya perinatalnoy smertnosti [Prospects for perinatal mortality reduction]. Pediatriya 1992;(1):7-10.
  14. Frolova O.G., Tokova Z.Z., Pugacheva T.V., Volgina V.F., Gudimova V.V., Makarova E.E. Metodicheskie podkhody k izucheniyu reproduktivnykh poter [Methodic approaches to reproductive losses study]. Byulleten NII sotsialnoy gigieny, ekonomiki i upravleniya zdravookhraneniem 1999. Special Issue. P. 70-74.
  15. Tsaregorodtsev A.D., Ryumina I.I., Yakovleva I.N., Gusarova G.I. Strategiya Vsemirnoy organizatsii zdravookhraneniya po profilaktike zhestokogo obrashcheniya s detmi i otsutstvii zaboty (analiz situatsii v Rossiyskoy Federatsii) [World Health Organization strategy on preventing child abusive treatment and inattention (analysis of cases in the Russian Federation)]. Rossiyskiy vestnik perinatologii i pediatrii 2004;(6):5-11.

Views: 22053

Be first to comment this article

Write Comment
  • Please keep the topic of messages relevant to the subject of the article.
  • Personal verbal attacks will be deleted.
  • Please don't use comments to plug your web site. Such material will be removed.
  • Just ensure to *Refresh* your browser for a new security code to be displayed prior to clicking on the 'Send' button.
  • Keep in mind that the above process only applies if you simply entered the wrong security code.

Code:* Code

Last Updated ( Thursday, 07 November 2013 )
Next >
home contact search contact search