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Main arrow Archive of previous Issues arrow 2 2013 (30) arrow Risk factors for tuberculosis in the present socio-economic conditions
Risk factors for tuberculosis in the present socio-economic conditions Print
Friday, 19 April 2013

Summary. Epidemiological situation concerning tuberculosis is affected by disadvantaged groups, HIV infection and spread of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Objective: to study impact of social factors, HIV infection and drug resistance on tuberculosis morbidity.

Methods: key trends in tuberculosis epidemic have been analyzed based on the statistical data reporting and personalized automated epidemiological monitoring in the Republic of Bashkortostan.

Results: Dynamics of the epidemiological situation concerning tuberculosis in the Republic of Bashkortostan was characterized by reduced TB morbidity incidence from 114.0 to 26.7 in 1970-1990, with a rise up to 70.1 in 2000 and subsequent decline to 47.0 per 100000 population in 2010. Prevalence of tuberculosis was 601.0, 151.9, 181.9, 119.8 per 100 000 population respectively. In 1991-2010 a number of the able-bodied unemployed among newly diagnosed TB patients increased from 3.6% to 46.0%.

In 1999-2011 504 patients with HIV-TB co-infection were detected. During those years the share of HIV-positive patients among newly diagnosed TB patients increased from 0.1% to 5.6%, and up to 10.8% in the city of Ufa. 71.4% of the able-bodied patients with HIV-TB co-infection were unemployed. The age structure of newly diagnosed TB patients was the following: under 18 years - 0.2%, 18-30 years 45.0%, 31-40 years 42.7%, over 40 years 12.1%. 208 patients with active tuberculosis (41.3%) died, and 62 patients (12.3%) were completely cured.

Prevalence of drug-resistant TB and multidrug-resistant TB in 6829 sputum smear-positive patients, including 2528 newly diagnosed patients has been analyzed for the period of 2007-2011. Multi-drug resistance among newly diagnosed patients increased from 12.6% to 21.9%, and drug-resistant tuberculosis increased up to 5.2%. Multidrug resistance in sputum smear positive patients increased from 34.6% to 54.9%, and drug-resistance increased to 21.6%.

Conclusions. The country has developed a tendency towards decreased tuberculosis morbidity over the last decade. However, epidemiological situation concerning tuberculosis is influenced by a sharp increase in TB incidence among the able-bodied unemployed and HIV-positive people and spread of the multi-drug resistant causative agent, which requires that TB control activities be organized with due regard to those factors.

Keywords. Tuberculosis; HIV infection; morbidity; multi-drug resistant tuberculosis; risk group.

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