About this Journal Publication ethics Editorial Board Editorial Council Editorial Office For the Authors Contacts

News feeds

Journal in Databases

eLIBRARY.RU - ═└ËÎ═└▀ Ţ╦┼╩Ďđ╬══└▀ ┴╚┴╦╚╬Ď┼╩└

Google Scholar

Google Scholar

For authors' attention

Publication is free of charge

In aims to provide interconnection of publications in international scientific journals using Digital Object Identification - DOI, our editorial office incorporated the journal "Social aspects of population health" into international reference system CrossRef.

Since 2016 DOI will be assigned to all scientific articles published in our journal free of charge.

Also DOI will be assigned to all articles published in 2014 and 2015 free of charge as well
Thursday, 02 November 2017

DOI: 10.21045/2071-5021-2017-57-5-3

Danilova I.A. 1,2
1 National Research University ôHigher School of Economicsö, Moscow, Russian Federation
2 Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany

Contacts: Danilova Inna, e-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it
Information about author:
Danilova I.A., https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8813-5871
Acknowledgments. The study has been funded by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ź5-100╗.
Conflct of interests. The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Significance. During the recent decades, Russia has experienced significant shifts in mortality. Considering the heterogeneity of the Russian regions, it is important to analyze how those shifts were experienced at the regional level and how they influenced the inter-regional mortality inequality.

Purpose. To evaluate how the inter-regional mortality inequality in Russia changed during the period 1989-2016; to measure contribution of different age groups and causes of death into the inter-regional mortality inequality in Russia and changes in those contributions over time.

Methods. In the current study, we used gap in life expectancy between the two groups of regions as the main measure of inter-regional inequality. The first group included regions with the highest levels of life expectancy inhabited altogether by 15% of the total Russian population. The second group included regions with the lowest levels of life expectancy, which also altogether accounted for 15% of the total Russian population. The contribution of different age groups and causes of death into the gap in life expectancy between the two groups was estimated with the stepwise replacement decomposition technique.

Results. Life expectancy inequality between regions increased substantially in the 1990s. The recent period of mortality improvements in Russia did not result in any significant changes in the inter-regional inequality. In 2016, the difference between the two 15%-groups of regions performing the best and the worst in terms of life expectancy amounted to 9.6 years in males. Mortality inequality in ages 15-39 contributed 2.6 years to this gap, in ages 40-64 ľ 4.2 years, and in ages over 65 ľ 2.9 years. In females the gap amounted to 5.3 years; 1.2 years, 2.0 years, and 2.0 years contributed by age intervals 15-39, 40-64, and 65 years and over respectively. Among the causes of death, the major contribution in inequality is attributable to external causes of death at the young and middle ages and circulatory diseases at the middle and elderly ages.

Conclusions. Decreased contribution of external causes of death in the young and middle ages, and circulatory diseases in the middle age had a positive effect on the inter-regional inequality in life expectancy after 2005 contributing to its decline. At the same time, mortality decline in the elderly contributed to divergency in life expectancy across regions. Those positive changes in the elderly mortality towards reduction, which are associated with the beginning of cardiovascular revolution in Russia, did not equally affect the Russian regions.

Keywords. Regions of Russia; mortality inequality; causes of death.


  1. Andreev E.M. O tochnosti rezul'tatov rossijskih perepisej naselenija i stepeni doverija k raznym istochnikam informacii [On accuracy of Russia population censusesáresults and level of confidence in different sources ofáinformation]. Voprosy statistiki 2012; (11): 21-35. (in Russian).
  2. Andreev E.M., Kvasha E.A., Har'kova T.L. Prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni v Rossii: vosstanovitel'nyj rost [Life expectancy in Russia: a recovery growth]. Demoskope Weekly [Online]. 2014; (621-622). (in Russian). [cited 2017 Aug 16]. Available from: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2014/0621/tema05.php
  3. Andreev E.M., Kvasha E.A., Har'kova T.L., Ramonov A.V. Smertnost' i prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni [Mortality and life expectancy]. (in Russian). In: Vishnevskij A.G., Ed. Naselenie Rossii 2012 [Population of Russia 2012]. Moscow: HSE Publishing House; 2014. P. 239-308
  4. Bogojavlenskij D. Perepis' 2010: jetnicheskij srez [2010 Census: Ethnicásection]. Demoskope Weekly [Online]. 2012; (531-532) (in Russian). [cited 2017 Aug 16]. Available from: http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2012/0531/tema02.php
  5. Vishnevskij A. Smertnost' v Rossii: nesostojavshajasja vtoraja jepidemiologicheskaja revoljucija [Mortality in Russia: the second epidemiologic revolution that never was]. Demograficheskoe obozrenie 2014. 1(4): 5-40. (in Russian).
  6. Danilova I. A. Problemy kachestva rossijskoj statistiki prichin smerti v starcheskom vozraste [Problems of the quality of cause-specific mortality statistics at old ages]. Uspehi gerontologii 2015; (3): 409-414. (in Russian).
  7. Mkrtchjan N.V. Problemy ucheta naselenija otdel'nyh vozrastnyh grupp v hode perepisi naselenija 2010 g.: prichiny otklonenij poluchennyh dannyh ot ozhidaemyh [The problems of counting population at certain age groups during the 2010 Census: the causes of deviations in observed estimates from the expected ones]. In: Denisenko M.B., Ed. Demogarficheskie aspekty social'no-jekonomicheskogo razvitija [Demographic aspects of social-economic development]. Moscow: MAKS Press; 2012. P.197-214
  8. Ob utverzhdenii Koncepcii demograficheskoj politiki Rossijskoj Federacii na period do 2025 goda: Ukaz Prezidenta Rossijskoj Federacii ot 9 oktjabrja 2007 goda; ╣1351 (red. ot 01.07.2014; ╣483). [On the establishement of the Concept of family policy in Russian Federation for the period until 2025: Decree of the President of Russian Federation dated 2007 Oct 9] [Online]. (in Russian). [cited 2017 Aug 16]. Available from: http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/26299
  9. The Russian Fertility and Mortality database [Online]. Centre of Demographic Research. Moscow (Russia). [cited 2017 July 28]. Available at: áhttp://demogr.nes.ru/index.php/ru/demogr_indicat/data
  10. Andreev E.M., Shkolnikov V.M. An Excel spreadshit for the decomposition of a difference between two values of an aggregate demographic measure by stepwise replacement running from young to old ages. MPIDR Technical Report 2012-002. [Online]. URL: https://www.demogr.mpg.de/en/projects_publications/publications_1904/mpidr_technical_reports/an_excel_spreadsheet_for_the_decomposition_of_a_difference_between_two_values_of_an_aggregate_4591.htm
  11. Andreev E.M., Shkolnikov V.M., Begun A.Z. Algorithm for decomposition of differences between aggregate demographic measures and its application to life expectancies, healthy life expectancies, parity-progression ratios and total fertility rates // Demographic Research 2002; 7(14): 499-522.
  12. Grigoriev P., Meslé F., Shkolnikov V. M., Andreev E., Fihel A., Pechholdova M. et al. The recent mortality decline in Russia: beginning of the cardiovascular revolution? Population and Development Review 2014; 40(1): 107ľ129.
  13. Human Development Report 2015: Work for Human Development. New York. 2015. [╚ݲň­Ýň˛]. URL: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2015_human_development_report.pdf. (─Ó˛Ó ţß­Ó¨ňÝŔ : 15.07.2017)
  14. Shkolnikov V.M., Cornia G.A. The population crisis and rising mortality in transitional Russia. In: Cornia G.A., Paniccia R., editors. The mortality crisis in transitional economies. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000, p. 253-279.
  15. Shkolnikov V.M., McKee M., Leon D. Changes in life expectancy in Russia in the mid-1990s. Lancet 2001; (357): 917-921.
  16. Shkolnikov V.M., Nemtsov, A.V. The anti-alcohol campaign and variations in Russian Mortality. In: Bobadilla J.L., Costello C.A., Mitchell F., editors. Premature Deaths in the New Independent States. Washington: National Academy Press; 1997. p. 120-155.
  17. Shkolnikov, V. M., Andreev, E. M., McKee, M. & Leon, D. A. Components and possible determinants of the decrease in Russian mortality in 2004-2010. Demographic Research 2013; 28(32): 917-950.
  18. Vallin J. Diseases, Deaths and Life Expectancy. Genus 2005; 61 (3-4): pp.279-296
  19. Vallin J., Meslé F. Convergences and Divergences in Mortality. A New Approach to Health Transition. Demographic Research 2004; 2(2):11-44
  20. Vassin S.A., Costello C. A. Spatial, age, and cause-of-death patterns of mortality in Russia, 1988-1989. In: J. L. Bobadilla, C. A. Costello, F. Mitcell (Ed). Premature Death in the New Independent States. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1997. P. 66-119.

Views: 540

Be first to comment this article

Write Comment
  • Please keep the topic of messages relevant to the subject of the article.
  • Personal verbal attacks will be deleted.
  • Please don't use comments to plug your web site. Such material will be removed.
  • Just ensure to *Refresh* your browser for a new security code to be displayed prior to clicking on the 'Send' button.
  • Keep in mind that the above process only applies if you simply entered the wrong security code.

Code:* Code
I wish to be contacted by email regarding additional comments

Last Updated ( Wednesday, 08 November 2017 )
< Prev   Next >
home contact search contact search