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Main arrow Archive of previous Issues arrow ╣1 2012 (23) arrow Disability among labor-capable population as a medical and a social problem
Disability among labor-capable population as a medical and a social problem Print
Monday, 19 March 2012

E.Ya. Nemsveridze
ôDERICEö Clinic, Ltd., Moscow

Summary: Morbidity, disability, and mortality are generally considered to be main highlights of the nationĺs state of health. To assess recent developments of mortality, an analytical review based on the data from the State Statistical Committee of Russia, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare, as well official releases of the WHO, and also expertsĺ opinions on the subject were used in this study. In the casual structure of mortality, circulation disturbances (55% of total mortality), neoplasm (being noted as second in importance cause before 2008), accidents, poisoning, and traumas (with strong tendency to become second important cause instead of the previous third one) has been noted as most important causes of mortality. It had been in 2005-2009 that mortality from accidents, poisoning, and traumas began to peak above mortality rates from neoplasm, and it was in 2009 when it was acknowledged as second most important stable cause of death in the population of Russia.

Among the aforementioned three main indications of the state of health of the people (morbidity, disability, and mortality) the focus in this study was on disability, specifically on disability of labor-capable population. A long-term period of 11 last years was selected for the study. Certain changes in managing disability problems emerged in recent period, say, creation of Federal service of medical social expertise and rehabilitation for the disabled, a shift in general principles and techniquesĺ approaches to such an expertise, highlighting rehabilitation processes as major chain in solving problems of disabled and disability as it is ľ with the focus on social pathways for physical compensation and adaptation. These new approaches produced a framework for surveying disability featured as a multifactor problem.

One more development made disability and rehabilitation of the disabled people a more topical issue than it had been previously estimated, that was the growing number of chronic disorders incidence - eventually to aggravate the disability situation as medical and social problem. For example, cardio-vascular disorders and respiratory diseases produced in our country, as well as in other industrial nations, rather negative tendency along official figures on morbidity, disability, and mortality due to these diseases, which are only but doubling every current decade.

Nosology classes and degrees of disability were being surveyed for establishing certain regularities in development of disability of the population with the main aim of estimating the prevalence of disabled people among the population of the age with ability to work. The latter indicator is of great actual importance for the corresponding Ministries, Departments, and Organizations tackling the problem of disability, inasmuch as they are to elaborate practical policies and actual legal/management measures for social support for the disabled people of the age with ability to work.

Keywords. Disabled person; Structure of disability; Age with ability to work; Measures for support of disabled; Monitoring of the situation.


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